When it came to violence then, the first Leviathans solved one problem but created another. People were less likely to become the victims of homicide or casualties of war, but they were now under the thumbs of tyrants, clerics, and kleptocrats. This gives us the more sinister meaning of the word pacification: not just the bringing about of peace, but the imposition of absolute control by a coercive government. Solving this second problem would have to wait another few millennia, and in much of the world it remains unsolved to this day.
The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined by Steven Pinker (via BhTV)